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Download An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language) by Francis Katamba PDF

By Francis Katamba

This ebook is an advent to phonological thought positioned in the framework of modern mainstream generative phonology. The ebook is split into major elements. the 1st introduces readers to simple suggestions of articulatory phonetics, classical phonemics and conventional generative phonology. the second one half is dedicated to phonological idea. the character and company of phonological representations in nonlinear generative phonology is additionally explored.

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L A T E R A L - N O N L A T E R A L [± lateral] A lateral sound is produced if the airflow through the centre of mouth is blocked and air only escapes over one or both sides of the tongue. In nonlateral sounds air flows out through the centre of the mouth. The English [1] is an example of a lateral L I Q U I D . ) Languages may have lateral sonorants, fricatives and affricates made at various places of articulation. 19. N A S A L - N O N N A S A L (ORAL) [± nasal] In the production of a nasal sound the velum is lowered to allow air to escape through the nasal cavity.

Furthermore, as we shall see presently, functionally it makes sense to think of the changes in the various phonetic variables which make up a sound as happening in an abrupt and synchronised fashion, even though physically they are gradual and they overlap each other. That is to say, although in a word like inn, it is true that the soft palate will begin to be lowered before the tongue makes contact with the alveolar ridge, there is no functional significance in the fact that the latter part of [i] in inn will be progressively nasalised while the [i] of if is wholly oral.

15. CONSTRICTED GLOTTIS NONCONSTRICTED GLOTTIS [± constr] Constricted sounds are GLOTTALISED. They are produced with a severe obstruction of the glottis which is made using the vocal cords. This inhibits or prevents the free vibration of the vocal cords. No such gesture occurs in the production of nonconstricted sounds. Constricted sounds include implosives, ejectives, glottalised and laryngealised consonants The SPE system of distinctive features 49 as well as creaky voice and glottalised vowels and glides.

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