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By Goran Bergman


I. creation 3
II. equipment 7
1. fabric and means of recording 7
2. movie research 7
three. The meteorological facts 9
III. The id of the migrants 10
IV. the rate and course of migration thirteen
1. the rate of flight and its dependence on a number of exterior and internal
factors 13
2. The course of migration and the standards affecting it 21
three. The impression of topographical elements at the course 36
V. The impression of meteorological elements at the depth of migration 44
1. energy and course of the wind 45
2. Cloudiness 47
three. Visibility 49
four. Temperature 50
VI. The geographical distribution of the migration 50
Summary 54
References fifty seven

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Additional info for An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland

Example text

0 � 600- t0 u :c 50° -� ;:;::::: 0 - g 40°- c � i5 oe • 0 0 • �. 0 0 • .. • • • • 0 • oe • 0 • .. 0 0 • • • 30° • ' 0 • • 0 eo • • • 000 0 • 0 • • 0 0 0 .. 0 0 • 40 20 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 • 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 .. 0 0 .. 0 • • • • • 0 00 oeoo . Oe 0 0 0 0 80 60 Clou d-cover I 100 % FIG. H. Corrected directions of flight in relation to the degree of oYercast. Open circles = day migration, filled circles = night migration. the fact that in such weather migration is only weak or completely inhibited, 48).

1. Strength and direction of the wind A general picture of the effect of both the strength and direction of the wind is obtained in Fig. 20, which gives the intensity of migration in relation to the direction of the prevailing wind. Here data are given for each evening (open circ1es) and night (filled circles) for which radar observations are available from the central parts of the Gulf of Finland. There is a clear predominance of cases with winds between S and SW. In a qualitative way Fig. 20 demonstrates that there is indeed a connection between wind direction and the intensity of migration, so that winds from the NE appear to reduce or abolish migration completely, whereas the really high intensities of migration are to be found with winds between S and W.

The cases so excluded are shown in the shaded parts of the diagrams. The remaining material shows a fairly symmetrical distribution around a maximum. In each case the mean direction has been calculated and is indicated in the figure by an arrow and the corresponding numerical value. The means for corresponding areas in the years 1960, 1961 and 1 962 (Fig. 1 3 A, B and D) are 39. -1° , 41 . >0 and 42. 1° and thus very close to each other considering the 3 34 G. Bergman & K. 0. Donne r : Spring migration assumptions involved in this procedure.

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